Cloud computing services are offered through some cloud deployment approaches. Cloud deployment service can be classified into four main types, public, private, community, or hybrid. Cloud framework begins with the physical hardware of the cloud. The virtualization layer comes above the hardware layer, the next layer is the cloud management layer, and the final layer is the cloud services layer which is deployed by the cloud providers to make the cloud provisions available to the cloud consumers such as IaaS, PaaS and SaaS. Figure 1.1 illustrates this concept.
Cloud deployment models used to power the organization to provide services to its customers, choosing the deployment model is one of the biggest challenges that face any organization. One of the most common strategies is the public cloud services for development and test or less critical applications, allocating business critical applications to a more enterprise class cloud and running their mission critical apps on an in house cloud. Following is a discussion of the deployment types. Figure 1.2 illustrates the current percentage for each of these types.
When there is an internal data centers of a business or organization and is not made available for the public, it is called a private cloud. Sometimes private cloud named as an internal cloud and this type of cloud exists within the boundaries of an organization. Private cloud is a computing platform or architecture that provides hosted services to a limited number of people behind a firewall. The infrastructure for private cloud is operated solely for a single organization, but it managed internally by a third-party that hosted internally or externally. The virtualization and distributed computing is required to setup a private cloud project, this makes the organization reevaluate decisions about existing resources. Organizations should buy, build, and manage the hardware and software by themselves.
Private cloud is designed to offer the same features and benefits of public cloud systems, but removes a number of objections to the cloud computing model including control over enterprise and customer data due to worries about security and issues connected to regulatory compliance. Because a private cloud setup is implemented safely within the corporate firewall, the implementation is aimed to avoid many of the objections regarding cloud computing security. A private cloud provides more control over the company’s data and ensures security, albeit with greater potential risk for data loss due to natural disaster. When an organization implements the private cloud, it is responsible for running and managing the IT resources instead of passing this responsibility on to a third-party cloud provider.
Public cloud is a computing environment that consists of a set of computers and computer network resources based on the standard cloud computing model that is open for use to the public. Public cloud is a cloud services provided by third parties but hosted and managed by the service providers. The infrastructure is owned by an organization that sale the cloud services to the general public or to a large industry group. Using public cloud, users could delegate all service management and support to the service provider who is taking the responsibility of installation, management, provisioning, and maintenance. Applications, storage, and other resources are made available to the general public by the service provider. Public cloud customers only access and use the services and physical resources and they are charged for the used resources and services only.
There is a special type of deployment model called Virtual Private Cloud (VPC) that comes to exist when the service provider uses public cloud resources to develop a private cloud environment. Users can create a VPC as configurable pool of shared computing resources allocated within a public cloud environment. Figure 1.3 illustrates the way to create virtual private cloud. The cloud provider usually choose the hardware and the cloud users cannot do this like in the private cloud. The virtualization and device independence is very clear in this type, so the public cloud can be described as an external cloud when viewed from within a given organization.
When sharing infrastructure between several sites and organizations with common issues such as security, compliance, etc., this is called a community cloud. It is hosted internally or externally and could be managed internally or by a third party. The cost is spread over fewer users than a public cloud, only some of the cost savings potential of cloud computing are realized. Community cloud is best when looking for energy, cost efficiency, and vertical applications. Any software that support specific business processes to targets a smaller number of users within an organization called a vertical application. Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) and Customer Relationship Management (CRM) are examples of vertical applications.
All kinds of underutilized and unutilized computing machines are being networked, clustered, and virtualized to act as a community cloud that is capable of effortlessly to tackle specific needs of a particular community. Community cloud offers an alternative architecture for the use cases of cloud computing. The community cloud is not owned or controlled by one organization, and therefore not dependent on the lifespan or failure of any one organization. It is resilient to failure and robust, with no system wide cascade failures, because of the diversity of its supporting nodes. Community cloud offer control convenience because its community ownership provides for democratic distributed control. Community cloud makes use of underutilized user machines that require much less energy than the dedicated data centers required for vendor Clouds.
Hybrid Clouds Enterprises
The combination of private, community, and/or public clouds are called hybrid clouds. This composition of two or more clouds offers the benefits of multiple deployment models. This type of composition expands deployment for could services and allow organizations to use public cloud resources to meet temporary needs. This allows hybrid cloud to enable cloud bursting for scaling across clouds. The common big misperception is that cloud computing implies an external cloud, based on public cloud services. But the fact is that cloud computing is how to approach information technology. It is a way of doing computing, not a destination. Most enterprises will benefit from adopting cloud computing within their own data centers building which is a private clouds, and getting there in an evolutionary way through their existing virtualization technology. Figure 1.4 illustrates how hybrid cloud infrastructure works.
Cloud bursting is an application deployment model in which an application runs in a private cloud or data center and bursts to a public cloud when the demand for computing capacity increases. Primary advantage of cloud bursting and a hybrid cloud model is that an organization only pays for extra compute resources when needed. Cloud bursting enables data centers to create an in house IT infrastructure that supports average workloads and use cloud resources from public or private clouds during spikes in processing demands. A high degree of fault tolerance combined with locally immediate usability is obtained when using hybrid cloud architecture without depending on Internet connectivity. Hybrid cloud architecture requires both on premises resources and off site or remote server based cloud infrastructure. Hybrid cloud provides the flexibility of in house applications with the fault tolerance and scalability of cloud based services.
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